Furthermore different s http www apexbt com
Furthermore, different studies have described the APP as useful biomarkers in monitoring the post-ovariohysterectomy period in bitches with pyometra [12,14,52,53], similar to what was observed in queens in the present study. In our study, significant decreases in concentrations of a major (SAA) and a moderate APP (Hp), and increases in albumin were detected in the day 10 after surgery when compared with serum values before surgery, in those cats that presented an adequate response to the treatment. The queen that died of the disease still presented an APP response with elevated SAA and Hp, and decreased albumin concentrations at day 10 post-surgery. This APP dynamic represents a typical APP response, and suggests that APP can be potentially useful biomarkers in monitoring the post-operative period in feline pyometra. Development of oxidative stress was already described in mares with pyometra  and in different feline diseases [20,40,41,54]. However, to the authors' knowledge, the antioxidant response has not been assessed in queens with pyometra. According with our results, feline pyometra is associated with changes in the oxidative status, since significant differences in serum concentrations of Thiol and TAC were detected between diseased and control queens. Thiols are organic compounds containing a sulfhydryl group which are present in the intra- and extra-cellular fluids, and are considered one of the most important antioxidants of the Betulinic Acid mg [22,55]. Total serum thiols have proved to be important biomarkers of the oxidative status in different diseases in humans and dogs [21,33,56,57]. According with our results, Thiol also proved to be clinically useful biomarkers of oxidative stress in queens in pyometra. The TAC represents the sum of the activities of the different antioxidants, and also the antioxidative effects provided by the interactions between individual antioxidants [58,59]. Interestingly, in the present study, conflicting results concerning the serum concentrations of TAC were obtained when different methods were used. At diagnosis, serum TAC was significantly lower in queens with pyometra than in controls when determined by the CUPRAC and TEAC2 assays, not significantly different between the two groups when the TEAC1 method was used, and significantly higher in diseased queens in comparison to controls when FRAP was measured. Significant increases and decreases in serum TAC were previously reported in different diseases in human and veterinary medicine, with increases in TAC concentrations attributed to an increase in endogenous antioxidant synthesis to counteract the increase in oxidants, while decreases were assigned to a depletion in antioxidants due to a persistent state of oxidative stress [41,, , ]. Moreover, different results in TAC concentrations were also reported in human and canine diseases when TAC was assessed by different methods in the same samples [33,39,63,64], as occurred in our study. These differences might be explained by the fact that the different methods evaluate different antioxidants, and consequently different results and interpretations could be obtained. We hypothesize that concentrations of antioxidants increase in the early stages of the disease process in order to counteract the increase in oxidants and that, with the progression of the disease, the concentration of some antioxidants decrease early while others decrease later. Consequently, based on the antioxidants evaluated in each method, serum TAC will be increased or decreased. Therefore, it was suggested that evaluation of TAC should include determinations of different assays in order to contribute to a better understanding of the antioxidant status of the organism . Moreover, further studies, assessing different individual antioxidants should be performed to evaluate the role of each analyte in feline pyometra and in other feline diseases.