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  • The methods used for cytokine analysis such as ELISA


    The methods used for cytokine analysis, such as ELISA or multiplex systems could also influence the concentrations of cytokines analysed. It is therefore crucial to use the same lot of the multiplex analysis kit to make such a comparison [21]. In our study, we ensured that the analysis was performed at the same time by the same lot of the multiplex kit. Previous studies Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-ol sale looking at the difference between the modes of delivery have focused mainly on analysis of two to three cytokines [11], [22]. We analysed seventeen cytokines and identified four cytokines that showed significant differences even after the stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The limitation of this study is that the clinical protocols did not allow to assess the potential effect of medication on cytokine expression. All C-section delivered subjects received antibiotic prophylaxis and all mothers who delivered vaginally received prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandins are known to increase IL-8 [23], and it’s possible that the observed increase in IL-8 expression in our study is due to the use of prostaglandins. Morikawa et al. [24] showed a modulatory effect of Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-ol sale on cytokine production in vitro. Previous report has observed the influence of anesthesia on immune responses in newborns with maternal epidural anesthesia having less of an impact than general anesthesia [25]. Thus, we cannot exclude that some of the differences observed could be due to medication use and not due to the process of labour itself. The current study also did not address the topic of oxidative stress and alarmins, such as High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1), which are known to accompany normal vaginal delivery [26], [27], [28], [29]. Thus, the relationship between oxidative stress, alarmins and cytokines could not be evaluated.
    New monoclonal antibodies (moAb) and cellular therapies with stronger anti-tumor effects are evolving every day and used particularly in the fields of oncology, hematology, and organ transplantation; however these developments are overshadowed by serious adverse effects such as CRS. According to ‘The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events’ (NCI-CTCAEs) CRS is defined as a condition that is caused by an extreme immune response with excessive cytokine release causing symptoms such as nausea, headache, tachycardia, hypotension, rash, and dyspnea. These cytokines are released by T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, monocytes and macrophages. They activate the inflammatory cascade causing uncontrolled endothelial damage resulting in a systemic inflammatory response with multiple organ dysfunction and even death as result.
    Introduction The inflammatory process is a complex pathophysiological or natural biological response initiated by vascular tissues to defend against pathogens, cell damages or irritants (Nathan, 2002). A cascade of biochemical events occurs involving the regional vascular system, sensitization of the immune system and different types of cells found in the tissue involved (Ferrero-Miliani et al., 2007). Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process. However, the outcome may be deleterious if it leads to chronic inflammation without resolution of the underlying injurious process (Medzhitov, 2010). The events in inflammation are well defined, regardless of the initiating agent, with an increase in blood flow, vasodilation, increased cellular metabolism and protein extravasation fluids, with the release of soluble mediators. This process begins with the activation of phospholipase A2, which degrades cell membrane lipids releasing arachidonic acid and eicosanoid inflammatory mediators, serotonin, histamine and cytokines (Dassoler M et al., 2005; Falcão, H et al., 2005; Ferrero-Miliani et al., 2007). Cytokines participate in a wide range of biological processes; which includes embryonic development, disease pathogenesis, non-specific response to infection, and the progression of the degenerative aging processes (Dinarello, 2007; Ramesh et al., 2013). Today, the term “cytokine” encompasses interferons, interleukins, chemokines, mesenchymal growth factors, the tumor necrosis factor family and adipokines (Dinarello, 2007). Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by cells and have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells (Uçeyler et al., 2011). Cytokines have been an emerging target for the treatment of diseases associated with inflammatory conditions such as neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia (paradoxically considered a non-inflammatory rheumatic syndrome), neurodegeneration, sepsis and others (Ramesh et al., 2013; Uçeyler et al., 2011).